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The Serpentine model is a nuanced tool embedded within the broader Coordinated Management of Meaning (CMM) framework, developed by Pearce and Cronen in the late 20th century. At its core, the Serpentine model is an illustrative tool designed to map out the complexities of interpersonal communication patterns over time. Its inception was motivated by the need to better understand the dynamic and often recursive nature of conversations, where each communicative act is both influenced by past interactions and influences future exchanges. This model has become increasingly relevant in today’s organizational contexts, where the anticipation of challenges and opportunities necessitates a deep understanding of communication processes.

The world organizations navigate today is fraught with volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA). This environment mandates a nimble approach to communication, where understanding the genesis and trajectory of conversational patterns can significantly enhance organizational resilience and adaptability. The Serpentine model, with its emphasis on tracking the ebb and flow of communicative acts, offers a potent lens through which organizations can decode and influence their internal and external communication landscapes.

The guiding principles of the Serpentine model are deeply rooted in the philosophy of constructivism and dialogism. Constructivism posits that the realities we inhabit are socially constructed through our interactions. Dialogism, drawing from Bakhtin's work, suggests that dialogue is the primary medium through which these realities are negotiated and understood. The model aligns with these principles by visualizing conversations as sequences of interconnected communicative acts, each shaped by and shaping the contexts in which they occur.

This model's value system emphasizes mutual understanding, co-creation of meaning, and the iterative nature of communication. It recognizes that each communicative act is part of a larger narrative, influenced by individual perceptions, relationships, and the broader social and organizational contexts. The conceptual tradition it adheres to is one that views communication not merely as a conduit for information exchange but as a generative process that constructs the very fabric of organizational life.

From the perspective of organizational behavior and psychology, the Serpentine model stands as a testament to the complexity of human interactions. It underscores the notion that our communicative efforts are embedded within a web of meanings, each act influenced by a myriad of factors including individual identities, relational dynamics, and the situational context. This understanding is crucial for organizations aiming to foster environments where communication is leveraged as a strategic tool for development and change.

The Serpentine model visualizes communication not as a linear exchange but as a series of interconnected loops or "serpentines," each representing a communicative act within a conversation. These components and their interactions offer profound insights into the flow and structure of dialogue, providing a granular view of how meanings are negotiated and co-created over time.

1. Communicative Acts:

The foundational elements of the Serpentine model are communicative acts, which encompass anything from spoken words, gestures, written texts, to non-verbal cues. Each act is seen as a link in the chain of dialogue, influenced by previous acts and setting the stage for what follows. This perspective underscores the model's focus on the dialogical nature of communication, where every act is both a response and an invitation to future interaction.

2. Sequences:

A sequence in the Serpentine model refers to the order and progression of communicative acts over time. Unlike linear models that view communication as a straightforward exchange, the Serpentine model recognizes that conversations often loop back on themselves. These sequences can reveal patterns, such as recurring misunderstandings or the evolution of shared meaning, offering insights into the dynamics at play within a dialogue.

3. Contextual Embedding:

Every communicative act in the Serpentine model is embedded within multiple layers of context. These contexts range from the immediate (the relationship between the speakers, the topic at hand) to the broad (cultural norms, organizational climate). The model highlights how these layers of context influence both the shape of communication sequences and the meanings derived from them.

4. Recursive Nature:

A key feature of the Serpentine model is its recognition of the recursive nature of communication. This means that every communicative act can be revisited and reinterpreted in light of subsequent dialogue. This recursive loop allows for the constant renegotiation of meaning, as participants in a conversation build upon, challenge, or transform previous understandings.

5. Temporality:

The model emphasizes the temporal aspect of communication, acknowledging that the significance of communicative acts can shift over time. This component encourages a longitudinal perspective on dialogue, recognizing that the impact of a conversation may unfold or become apparent well after the exchange has occurred.

6. Interpersonal Dynamics:

Interpersonal dynamics are central to the Serpentine model, which views communication as inherently relational. The model pays particular attention to the ways in which power dynamics, relational histories, and emotional undercurrents influence the flow of conversation. It posits that understanding these dynamics is crucial for navigating and facilitating effective communication.

7. Generative Potential:

Lastly, the Serpentine model is premised on the belief in the generative potential of communication. This means that through the process of engaging in these complex, recursive dialogues, participants have the opportunity to create new understandings, transform relationships, and shape their social and organizational realities.

In summary, the Serpentine model provides a rich, nuanced framework for analyzing communication. By breaking down dialogue into its constituent parts—acts, sequences, contexts, and their interplay—it offers a comprehensive tool for understanding how meaning is constructed, negotiated, and evolved over time within organizational settings.

Uses & Benefits

The Serpentine model, with its intricate understanding of communication dynamics, is particularly useful for addressing specific organizational challenges and opportunities. This part of the article delves into how this tool can be applied within organizational contexts, highlighting its practical utility in fostering effective communication, resolving conflicts, and facilitating change.

Organizational Uses:

Conflict Resolution: In situations where misunderstandings and disagreements are common, the Serpentine model can help parties understand the complex interplay of communicative acts that contribute to conflict. By tracing the sequences of communication and the contexts in which they occur, organizations can identify the root causes of disputes and address them more effectively.

Change Management: Implementing change within organizations often requires navigating resistance and building consensus. The Serpentine model can illuminate the patterns of communication that either facilitate or hinder change, helping leaders craft strategies that promote openness and adaptability.

Team Development: For teams to function effectively, members need to communicate in ways that build trust and mutual understanding. The Serpentine model can be used to analyze team interactions, identify areas for improvement, and develop interventions that enhance collaboration and cohesion.

Leadership Communication: Leaders play a crucial role in shaping organizational culture through their communicative practices. The Serpentine model offers insights into how leaders can convey messages in ways that inspire, motivate, and align their teams with organizational goals.

Benefits of Using the Serpentine Model:

Enhanced Self-awareness: By examining their own communicative patterns, individuals can become more aware of their impact on others. This self-awareness is crucial for personal and professional development, enabling individuals to communicate more effectively.

Improved Conflict Management: The model's focus on the recursive nature of communication helps individuals and teams understand how conflicts evolve. This understanding can lead to more effective conflict management strategies that address the underlying issues.

Deeper Understanding of Organizational Dynamics: The Serpentine model's emphasis on context illuminates the ways in which organizational culture, power dynamics, and social norms influence communication. This deeper understanding can inform strategies for organizational development and change.

Fostering Innovation: By recognizing the generative potential of communication, the Serpentine model encourages the co-creation of new ideas and approaches. This can foster an environment where innovation thrives.

Building Stronger Relationships: The model's relational perspective highlights the importance of building high-quality connections. Organizations that apply the Serpentine model can develop stronger, more collaborative relationships among their members.

In Practice:

Resolving Miscommunications: By mapping out the sequences of a miscommunication, parties can identify where and how their interpretations diverged. This process can lead to a shared understanding and resolution.

Facilitating Team Meetings: Teams can use the Serpentine model to reflect on their meeting dynamics, uncovering patterns that either enhance or detract from effective collaboration.

Training Leaders: Leadership development programs can incorporate the Serpentine model to help emerging leaders understand the complexities of organizational communication and how to navigate them effectively.

In conclusion, the Serpentine model's comprehensive approach to understanding communication offers valuable insights and strategies for enhancing organizational effectiveness. By applying this model, organizations can improve their communication practices, leading to better outcomes across a range of areas from conflict resolution to team development and change management.


OD Application

The Serpentine model's flexibility and depth make it an invaluable tool in the organizational development (OD) toolkit, particularly when applied to the healthcare, technology, and non-profit sectors. Each of these sectors faces unique challenges and opportunities that can be effectively addressed through the strategic application of the Serpentine model. The following case studies illustrate hypothetical applications of the model in these contexts, highlighting its utility in fostering understanding, strategic alignment, and organizational effectiveness.

Case Study 1: Healthcare Organization

Challenge: A healthcare organization is struggling with interdepartmental communication, leading to delays in patient care and decreased staff satisfaction.

Application: The Serpentine model is introduced to map out the communication patterns between departments. Through workshops, staff members from various departments come together to trace the sequences of communicative acts that contribute to the delays. They examine the contexts influencing these patterns, such as hierarchical dynamics, the immediate stressors of patient care, and the broader context of healthcare policies.

Solution: By identifying and understanding the recursive nature of their communication, the departments co-create a new communication protocol that emphasizes clarity, timely response, and mutual support. The Serpentine model helps them recognize and mitigate the impact of stress and hierarchy on their interactions, leading to improved patient care and staff satisfaction.

Case Study 2: Technology Organization

Challenge: A rapidly growing technology firm is experiencing challenges in maintaining its innovative edge due to siloed communication between its development and marketing teams.

Application: Utilizing the Serpentine model, the organization conducts sessions where members from both teams analyze their communication breakdowns. They focus on the sequences that lead to misunderstanding and explore the multiple contexts, including the pressures of rapid growth, market competition, and the distinct cultures of development versus marketing.

Solution: The insights gained enable the teams to establish a cross-functional task force designed to facilitate ongoing dialogue and collaboration. They develop a shared vocabulary and set up regular 'innovation jams' where team members collaboratively explore new ideas. The Serpentine model guides them in creating a more integrated approach to communication, fostering a culture of innovation.

Case Study 3: Non-Profit Organization

Challenge: A non-profit organization dedicated to community development is facing challenges in aligning its diverse stakeholders around a common vision.

Application: The organization applies the Serpentine model in stakeholder meetings to map out the complex communication landscape involving volunteers, community members, donors, and staff. They examine the historical and current communicative acts that have both aligned and divided stakeholders, considering the broader socio-political and economic contexts.

Solution: Through facilitated dialogues using the Serpentine model as a guide, the organization identifies key misalignments and areas of potential synergy. They co-develop a communication charter that commits to transparency, inclusivity, and regular reflection on their communicative practices. This charter becomes the foundation for a renewed, cohesive strategy for community engagement and development.

General Insights:

The Serpentine model, with its focus on the nuanced dynamics of communication, offers organizations a lens through which to view and address their specific challenges. Whether dealing with the critical stakes of healthcare, the fast-paced innovation of technology, or the collaborative imperative of non-profit work, the model facilitates a deeper understanding of communicative patterns and their impacts. By engaging with the model, organizations can develop tailored strategies that enhance collaboration, strategic alignment, and overall effectiveness, turning communication into a strategic asset for organizational development.


Facilitating the Serpentine model within organizational settings involves a nuanced approach that respects the complexity of communication dynamics. This section outlines a step-by-step guide for consultants to effectively introduce and guide organizations through the model, supported by a modern example that illustrates the application process.

Step-by-Step Facilitation:

Introduction to the Serpentine Model:

Begin by presenting the Serpentine model to the client, focusing on its key components—communicative acts, sequences, contexts, recursive nature, temporality, interpersonal dynamics, and generative potential. Use visual aids to depict how communication flows in a serpentine, interconnected manner, emphasizing the model's utility in understanding and improving organizational communication.

Assessment of Current Communication Patterns:

Engage participants in mapping out recent or ongoing conversations that highlight challenges or opportunities within the organization. Encourage them to identify specific communicative acts and the sequences in which they occur, noting how these are influenced by and influence various contexts.

Identification of Key Communication Dynamics:

With the Serpentine model as a framework, guide participants to delve deeper into the interpersonal dynamics and the recursive nature of the identified communication sequences. This involves examining power dynamics, emotional undercurrents, and the role of individual and collective histories in shaping communication.

Exploration of Temporality and Generative Potential:

Facilitate discussions around how the significance of communicative acts may change over time and explore the generative potential of communication. Highlight how new understandings and pathways for action can emerge from re-evaluating past conversations and envisioning future interactions differently.

Development of Action Plans:

Based on insights gained, work with participants to co-create action plans that address identified communication challenges. These plans should leverage the generative potential of communication to foster more effective, inclusive, and adaptable organizational practices.

Introduction to Clients:

Via Email: Prepare an introductory email that outlines the purpose and benefits of engaging with the Serpentine model. Emphasize how it can help the organization understand and improve its communication dynamics, leading to better alignment, collaboration, and innovation.

Facilitator’s Talking Points: When meeting with clients face-to-face, use talking points that highlight the practical applications of the Serpentine model in addressing their specific challenges. Relate the model to real organizational scenarios to help participants see its relevance to their work.

Modern Example:

Imagine a tech startup grappling with communication breakdowns between its engineering and marketing teams. The consultant introduces the Serpentine model in a series of workshops, using the startup's recent product launch debrief as a case study. Through mapping the communicative acts and sequences surrounding the launch, participants uncover misunderstandings stemming from differing contexts—technical versus market-oriented perspectives. By exploring the recursive nature of their interactions and the underlying interpersonal dynamics, the teams identify opportunities to bridge their communication gap. They co-develop a "launch dialogue protocol" that incorporates regular cross-functional meetings, shared glossaries of terms, and a commitment to seeking understanding before problem-solving. This protocol becomes a cornerstone of their improved communication strategy, facilitating clearer, more productive conversations that enhance collaboration and product development.

Questions for Facilitators:

What communicative acts have led to misunderstandings in the past, and how can they be reinterpreted to prevent future conflicts?

How can the team leverage the generative potential of communication to innovate and create new solutions?

What changes in the organizational culture or processes can support the ongoing use of the Serpentine model to enhance communication?

Facilitating the Serpentine model requires a deep understanding of its components and the ability to guide participants through a reflective and constructive exploration of their communication practices. By following these steps and adapting the facilitation approach to the unique context of each organization, consultants can help clients harness the power of effective communication to achieve their strategic goals.

AI Assist

Incorporating the Serpentine model into an AI-driven application can significantly augment an organization's ability to understand, analyze, and improve communication dynamics. Here's a script designed to be added to a "GPT" customized for organizational development consultants. This GPT can guide users through a personalized practical application of the Serpentine model, enhancing their communicative interactions within the organization.

Step-by-Step GPT Prompt for Implementing the Serpentine Model:

Identify the Communication Sequence:

Prompt: "Think of a recent communication challenge you faced within your team or organization. Describe the sequence of communicative acts that took place, including what was said, by whom, and in what order."

Analyze the Context:

Prompt: "Reflect on the broader context surrounding this communication sequence. What internal and external factors do you think influenced the way these communicative acts were interpreted? Consider aspects such as organizational culture, team dynamics, individual relationships, and external pressures."

Explore Interpersonal Dynamics:

Prompt: "Now, let's delve into the interpersonal dynamics at play. Were there any power imbalances, emotional undercurrents, or historical interactions that might have shaped this communication? How did these dynamics influence the outcome?"

Examine the Recursive Nature of Communication:

Prompt: "Consider how past communications may have influenced this sequence and how this sequence might influence future communications. Can you identify any patterns or themes that recur in your team's communication?"

Discuss the Temporality of Communicative Acts:

Prompt: "Think about the timing of the communicative acts within the sequence. Were there moments when something said at a different time might have been interpreted differently? How does the timing of communication impact its effectiveness in your experience?"

Assess Generative Potential:

Prompt: "Reflect on the potential for generating new understanding or actions from this communication sequence. What opportunities for positive change can you identify? How can you leverage these insights to improve future communication?"

Develop Actionable Insights:

Prompt: "Based on our analysis, what specific actions can you take to address the challenges identified and enhance communication within your team or organization? List at least three actionable steps."

Implementation Plan:

Prompt: "Create a brief plan for implementing the actions you've identified. Who will be involved, what resources will be needed, and how will you measure success?"

User Interaction Example:

User: "In our last project meeting, there was a misunderstanding about the project timeline. The project manager presented the timeline without providing enough context about the reasons for the new deadlines, leading to frustration among team members."

GPT: "Let's analyze this situation using the Serpentine model. Reflect on the broader context of this meeting. Were there external pressures or organizational changes that might have influenced how the timeline was presented and received?"

This AI application serves as a virtual facilitator, guiding users through a structured analysis of their communication sequences using the Serpentine model. By answering the prompts, users can gain deeper insights into their communicative practices, identify areas for improvement, and develop tailored strategies for enhancing organizational communication.


The Serpentine model’s efficacy and versatility in organizational development (OD) can be further illuminated by aligning it with three foundational theories that have deeply influenced its conceptualization and application. These theories—Social Constructionism, Symbolic Interactionism, and Systems Theory—provide a theoretical backdrop that enriches our understanding of the Serpentine model's potential in navigating and enhancing organizational communication dynamics.

Social Constructionism:

Theorist: Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann

What the Theory Suggests: Social Constructionism posits that reality is not inherently objective but is co-constructed by individuals through their interactions and shared meanings. It emphasizes the significance of language and communication in the creation of social realities.

Relation to the Serpentine Model: The Serpentine model embodies Social Constructionism by highlighting how communicative acts within organizations construct the shared realities of its members. It underscores the model’s role in deconstructing and reconstructing organizational narratives, enabling a collective reimagining of practices, roles, and objectives in light of emerging challenges and opportunities.

Symbolic Interactionism:

Theorist: Herbert Blumer

What the Theory Suggests: Symbolic Interactionism focuses on the subjective meanings that people ascribe to objects, events, and behaviors, and how these meanings are shaped through social interaction. It asserts that these meanings are malleable and negotiated through communication.

Relation to the Serpentine Model: Through its exploration of communicative sequences and contexts, the Serpentine model applies the principles of Symbolic Interactionism by facilitating the negotiation of meanings within organizational interactions. It enables members to explore and reshape the symbols and meanings that underlie their communicative acts, fostering a more adaptive and cohesive organizational culture.

Systems Theory:

Theorist: Ludwig von Bertalanffy

What the Theory Suggests: Systems Theory views organizations as complex, interrelated systems where changes in one part of the system can have cascading effects throughout the entire system. It emphasizes the importance of understanding these interdependencies to manage change effectively.

Relation to the Serpentine Model: The Serpentine model mirrors Systems Theory in its approach to organizational communication as a complex system of interdependent sequences and contexts. By mapping the flow of communication within this system, the model helps identify leverage points for intervention that can lead to systemic improvements in how information is shared and understood.

Critical Questions for Deeper Understanding:

How do our communicative acts contribute to the construction of our organizational reality, and how can we leverage this understanding to foster a more inclusive and innovative environment?

In what ways can we renegotiate the meanings of symbols and actions within our organization to better align with our evolving goals and values?

How can we apply the insights from the Serpentine model to identify and address systemic communication barriers that hinder our organizational effectiveness and adaptability?

By integrating these theoretical perspectives, the Serpentine model offers a robust framework for examining and enhancing communication within organizations. It not only aids in navigating the complexities of organizational interactions but also serves as a catalyst for collective growth and transformation.

Research Questions

The intricate dynamics captured by the Serpentine model offer a fertile ground for research within the field of organizational development (OD). To further explore the application of this model, the following research questions are proposed, each accompanied by suggestions on how these studies could be designed and implemented:

How does the use of the Serpentine model impact conflict resolution effectiveness in cross-functional teams within organizations?

Study Design: A longitudinal comparative study could be implemented, wherein cross-functional teams that use the Serpentine model for conflict resolution are compared with teams that use traditional conflict resolution methods. Data collection methods might include surveys, interviews, and observation of conflict resolution processes and outcomes over time.

What role does organizational culture play in the adoption and efficacy of the Serpentine model for enhancing communication?

Study Design: A mixed-methods research design could explore the relationship between various types of organizational culture (using a framework such as Cameron and Quinn's Competing Values Framework) and the success of implementing the Serpentine model. Surveys to assess organizational culture and communication effectiveness, coupled with in-depth case studies, could provide insights into the conditions under which the Serpentine model thrives.

Can the Serpentine model facilitate transformational change in organizations by improving internal communication strategies?

Study Design: A quasi-experimental design, involving pre-tests and post-tests of communication effectiveness and organizational readiness for change, could be used to evaluate the impact of implementing the Serpentine model in organizations undergoing transformational change. Interviews and focus groups could add qualitative depth to the findings.

How does the recursive nature of communication, as highlighted by the Serpentine model, influence team dynamics and performance in virtual teams?

Study Design: With the rise of remote work, this question could be addressed through a study involving virtual teams across different industries. Using a combination of communication logs, team performance metrics, and reflective journals from team members, researchers can assess how recursive communication patterns affect team cohesion, conflict, and performance.

What are the long-term impacts of utilizing the Serpentine model on organizational learning and knowledge management practices?

Study Design: A longitudinal study examining organizations that integrate the Serpentine model into their knowledge management and organizational learning initiatives could provide valuable insights. Methods might include annual surveys, interviews with key stakeholders, and analysis of organizational knowledge repositories to trace changes in knowledge sharing and innovation over time.


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